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    Status of Mercury Concentration in Mudskipper Goby (Periophthalmussobrinus) Found in Zanzibar Intertidal Areas
    (THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF ZANZIBAR, 2010-12) Hamad, Zainab Ali
    Marine pollution by heavy metals is a worldwide issue of concern today. Improper waste disposal in Zanzibar, especially electronic waste that releases different chemicals such as Arsenic, Chromium, lead and mercury to the environment, together with agricultural activities, tanning and municipal waste which contain harmful chemicals poses a threat to aquatic environment. The present study aimed to determine the concentration of total mercury concentration in goby fish (Periophthalmussobrinus) tissues found in Zanzibar Islands. A total of 75 fish were collected during low tides at four sites found in Unguja Island which are Bumbwini, Kilimani, Kinazini and Malindi. Twenty fish were captured per site, except Kilimani intertidal area where only fifteen fish were collected due to weather conditions. The collected fish were first stored at – 20 0C refrigerator and then dissected and lyophilised (freeze-dried) by using Labconco Freezone 2.5 L freeze drier for sampling analysis. The total mercury concentration of fish tissues was analysed by using DMA-80 Direct Mercury Analyser with the DORM 4 certified reference material. Data showed that the total mercury concentration in fish samples did not exceed the standard set by of 0.5 mg/kg dry weight of methylmercury concentration. However, three goby fish collected at Bumbwini intertidal area were found to have total mercury concentration which range from to 0.224 -0.2811(mg/kg) which exceed the 0.2 mg/kg allowable limit of total mercury concentration for vulnerable groups (frequent fish consumers, pregnant women, and children under 15 years old).The correlation between total mercury concentration with fish weight and length was evaluated by using Pearson correlation model. Comparisons yielding probability values of less than 0.01 were considered to demonstrate the correlation. Overall, there was a positive correlation between fish length and total mercury concentration but not significant; except for the fish collected at Kilimani intertidal area, which showed significant positive correlation between fish length and total mercury concentration (correlation= 0.932, p =0.000). However, the fish collected at Malindi intertidal area shows negative significant correlation between fish length and total mercury concentration(correlation = - 0.653, p =0.002).Generally these results suggest that the goby fish from Bumbwini, Kilimani, Kinazini and Malindi are safe for human consumption but this is an alarm of mercury contamination to the coastal marine ecosystem of Zanzibar.
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    Assessing Strategies of Reducing School Dropout in Zanzibar
    (THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF ZANZIBAR, 2019-11) Ali, Mwajuma Abdallah
    This study investigated effectiveness of strategies that reduce school dropout in upper primary and lower secondary students in Zanzibar, the case of Central District. Specifically this study focused on factors that cause school dropout, strategies designed to reduce dropout problem and relevance of strategies that were designed to reduce school dropout. The study adopted qualitative approach targeting upper primary and lower secondary levels of students in Unguja Ukuu, Kibele, Kikungwi and Tunguu schools in Central District. Sample sizes of 55 respondents used by using purposive sampling and convenience sampling procedures. Interview and focus group discussion methods used to collect data. Interview and focus group data were recorded by using mobile sound recorder. Collected data were coded and analyzed thematically. The study revealed factors for school dropout in upper primary and lower secondary level comprised of school related factors as well as out of school ones. The former include ineffective ways of teaching, students’ class repetition, lack of school feeding programme and students’ embarrassment. The latter embrace economic related factors, social related factors, geographical factors and individual factors. The study discovered several strategies have been designed to reduce school dropout, including establishment of guidance and counseling units, use of police stations as well as use of alternative punishments. The study concluded some strategies that are in place have had little success because they are not practiced effectively and through their application they fail to reduce school dropout while strategies have had success because they are practiced effectively as well as they flourished to reduce dropouts. The study recommends that emphasizes should put much to the uses of those effective strategies that help to reduce school dropout, there is a need to emphasize on the use of effective strategies that are in place, schools to improve strong relationship between parents and teachers so as to keep students present and active in schools, as well as school should amend those ineffective strategies that are in place in order to increase the strategies which can help to reduce school dropout
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    Ulinganishaji wa Mofolojia ya Uambishaji wa Vitenzi Kati ya Kimakunduchi, Kitumbatu na Kiswahili Sanifu
    (THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF ZANZIBAR, 2019-12) Juma, Mwanahija Ali
    Tasnifu hii inahusu ulinganishi wa mofolojia ya uambishaji wa vitenzi kati ya Kimakunduchi, Kitumbatu na Kiswahili Sanifu. Mofolojia ya uambishaji wa vitenzi ni miongoni mwa vipengele vya sarufi vinavyojihusisha na uchambuzi wa sayansi ya lugha kwa kubainisha na kufafanua vipashio vya kimaumbo. Kimakunduchi ni lahaja inayozungumzwa kusini ya kisiwa cha Unguja kilichopo Zanzibar nchini Tanzania. Kitumbatu ni lahaja inayozungumzwa kaskazini ya kisiwa cha Unguja kilichopo Zanzibar Tanzania na Kiswahili sanifu ni lahaja iliyosanifiwa na kutumika katika maeneo yote rasmi popote duniani. Lahaja hizi tatu zina vitenzi vyenye viambishi kabla na baada ya mzizi wa kitenzi. Katika utafiti huu tumeshughulikia viambishi vya nafsi, viambishi vya njeo na viambishi vya yambwa. Kazi hii imetumia nadharia ya Umbo Upeo katika kubainisha mofolojia ya vitenzi, kufafanua mashartizuizi ya viambishi na kuyalinganisha katika Kimakunduchi, Kitumbatu na Kiswahili Sanifu. Utafiti umebaini kuwapo kwa mlingano mkubwa wa mashartizuizi kati ya Kimakunduchi na Kitumbatu, pia mlingano kwa kiasi kati ya Kimakunduchi, Kitumbatu na Kiswahili Sanifu na tofauti chache kati ya lahaja hizo. Nadharia ya Umbo Upeo inashughulikia masuala ya kifonolojia ambayo yalionekana kujitokeza katika muundo wa sauti. Hata hivyo baadae nadharia hii imetumika katika kushughulikia masuala mengine ya kiisimu kama vile sintaksia, semantiki, mofolojia, isimujamii, isimu historia na taaluma nyingine kwa lengo la kuvibainisha vipengele vya kiisimu vilivyomo katika matawi hayo ya kiisimu kwa kuzingatia misingi mitatu ambayo ni Uzalishaji, Mashartizuizi na Tathmiini. Vilevile, huangalia jinsi lugha inavyopokea na kuzalisha vipashio mbalimbali vikiwemo mofu na kuvibainisha mashartizuizi yake na mwisho kuvifanyia tathmini kwa kuangalia ukubalifu, uhafifu au kutokukubalika kwa vipengele hivyo katika lugha inayohusika
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    Muundo wa Lugha Katika Maishairi ya Watungaji Wateule wa Zanzibar
    (The State University of Zanzibar, 2017-11) HAMAD, Asha Mhene
    Utafiti huu unahusu “Muundo wa Lugha katika Mashairi ya Watungaji Wateule wa Zanzibar”. Diwani nne za watungaji wawili wa Zanzibar zilichambuliwa. Diwani hizo ni Kina cha Maisha ya Mohamed (1984) na Jicho la Ndani ya Mohamed (2002). Diwani nyengine ni Andamo iliyoandikwa na Ghassani (2016a) na Siwachi Kusema pia ya Ghassani (2016b). Utafiti huu ulifanywa katika Wilaya ya Magharibi A, Magharibi B na Wilaya ya Kusini, Unguja, Zanzibar. Data za msingi zilipatikana kwa njia ya maktaba, usaili kwa wahakiki wa fasihi na hojaji kwa wanafunzi wa vyuo vikuu vya Zanzibar. Njia ya maktaba iliwezesha kupata data nyingi za msingi zilizotimiza malengo ya utafiti. Malengo hayo ni kuchunguza vijenzi vya lugha katika ngazi ya fonolojia, mofolojia, sintaksia na semantiki, vilivyoyajenga mashairi ya watungaji wateule wa Zanzibar kimaana na kiujumi. Aidha, utafiti ulichunguza ukiushi wa kanuni za kisarufi katika mashairi hayo na jinsi vijenzi vya lugha vilivyopambanua mtindo. Nadharia ya Umuundo na Umuundoleo zilitumika katika uchambuzi wa data. Utafiti umeonesha kuwa watunzi wote wamevitumia vijenzi vya lugha katika ngazi ya fonolojia, mofolojia, sintaksia na semantiki kuyajenga mashairi yao. Watunzi wote wamevitumia vijenzi vya lugha kwa kuzingatia kanuni za lugha kwa usahihi kulingana na muktadha, mazingira na wakati. Aidha, wamevisarifu vijengo vya lugha kuimarisha sanaa zao kiujumi na kimaana kwa kuzingatia sifa za lugha ya kishairi inayoendana na mkwepo wa sarufi. Hali hiyo imedhihirisha kuwa upo ufungamanifu kati ya vijenzi vya kimuundo na ushairi, kwa kuwa vijenzi hivyo ndivyo vilivyotumika kuyajenga mashairi ya watungaji wateule wa Zanzibar.
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    Matumizi ya Lugha ya Vijana wa Kizanzibar na Changamoto zake katika Kiswahili
    (SUZA, 2018-01-01) HAJI USSI, NADHRA
    Utafiti huu, ulijihusisha na Matumizi ya Lugha ya Kiswahili kwa Vijana wa Kizanzibar na Changamoto zake katika Kiswahili. Mtafiti alitumia mbinu mbalimbali katika kuchunguza matumizi ya lugha ya Kiswahili kwa vijana wa Kizanzibari na changamoto zake katika Kiswahili. Data za utafiti huu zilikusanywa kutoka maktabani na uwandani. Katika kukusanya data za maktabani, mtafiti alifanya uchunguzi na uchambuzi wa lugha ya Kiswahili kupitia makala mbalimbali zinazohusiana na utafit huu. Kwa upande wa data za uwandani, mtafiti alitumia mbinu ya usaili, hojaji na uchunguzi makinifu kwa kutumia usampulishaji mdokezo na lengwa. Katika kuzichambua data hizo, mtafiti alitumia mkabala wa kiidadi na mkabala stahilifu. Hata hivyo, mikabala yote ilitumika pale palipohitajika. Nadharia ya Uchunguzi wa Kimaeneo ilitumika kuchambulia data zinazohusiana malengo mahsusi ya utafiti huu na Nadharia ya Maana ni Matumizi ilitumika kuchambua data kwa pale panapostahiki. Matokeo ya utafiti huu, yaliweza kutupatia sifa tafauti za kiuzungumzaji katika maneno na mitindo ya sentensi katika kipengele cha sauti, maneno, sentensi na maana. Pia utokeaji wa lugha ya Kiswahili katika miktadha mbalimbali unatafautiana kimaana na kimuundo na unafafana katika utumiaji wa baadhi maneno na kwa upande wa kiisimu tuliweza kubaini changamoto hasi katika fonolojia, mofolojia, sintaksia na msamiati na chanya katika semantiki na msamiati, aidha kwa upande usio wa kiisimu tuliweza kupata changamoto hasi zaidi. Kutokana na matokeo ya utafiti huu, mtafiti anapendekeza kuwa jamii itoe taaluma maalumu itakayoshughulikia kuthibiti na kuhifadhi matumizi sahihi ya lugha.